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Because these can be calibrated reliably over a period of 40 million years this provides an alternate verification to radiometric dating in cases where sufficient record exists to provide a reliable trace.

Polarity reversals in the Earth's magnetic field have also been used to determine geologic time.

This technique is useful to about 9,000 years ago for samples from the western United States using overlapping tree-ring series from living and dead wood.

Patterns in tree-ring growth can be used to establish the age of old wood samples, and also give some hints to local climatic conditions.It also draws heavily from the field of ecophysiology, a branch of Biology, to ascribe spine or thorn characteristics to particular environmental or physiological variables.The first peer-reviewed article to present and explain an isotope spine series was from a saguaro cactus in Tucson, Arizona.This and other work shows that radiocarbon and isotope time-series derived from spines can be used for demographic or palaeoclimate studies.Annulus (zoology) In zoology, an annulus is an external circular ring.

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Another technique used by archaeologists is to inspect the depth of penetration of water vapor into chipped obsidian (volcanic glass) artifacts.